• This is how BMW uses loopholes to essentially cheat the IMSA GTLM system and race a car (Z4 GTE) they do not sell

      BMW does not play fair when it comes it professional racing. When BMW does not get its way, the Motorsport division simply quits. This started back in 1999 when BMW first announced they were bringing a V8 powered E46 M3 to race in the American Le Mans GT2 class despite BMW not selling an E46 M3 with V8 power. BMW scoured the rulebook for a loophole to allow them to beat Porsche and they found it. BMW only won a single race in the 2000 season with a inline-6 powered E46 M3.

      The 2001 ALMS GT2 regulations stated that a car had to be for sale on two continents within 12 months of the rules being issued. That meant BMW could race during the 2001 season with a V8 without producing an E46 M3 with a V8. BMW developed the P60B40 race engine for the M3 GTR and beat the competition down winning six of the eight races and dominating the 2001 season. Keep in mind Porsche fielded eight GT3's to BMW's two M3's. BMW flat out destroyed Porsche and Porsche was not happy.

      Now, BMW had a bit of a point with their switch to the V8 showing how unfair the rules were. Porsche had a displacement advantage on the 3.2 liter BMW inline-6 yet both motors had the same size air intake restrictor at 1.7 inches. That is not a level playing field so BMW essentially said screw you we'll race you with a new V8. BMW built the V8, raced the 2001 season with it, and just as the rules stated offered a couple of E46 M3 GTR's for sale at over $250,000 a pop on two continents.


      BMW followed the letter of the law but the law changed after Porsche cried and cried and cried at the close of the 2001 season. ALMS changed the rules to say a minimum of 50 cars must be available for sale before the start of the season for BMW to race in 2002. BMW said that was not fair and they could never meet the 50 car production deadline in time so they simply quit. The only other option would be to race with a 220 pound penalty and an even greater air intake restriction which would hand Porsche the class victory on a silver platter.


      Was what BMW did legal? Yes. Was it fair? No. BMW had a point about the air restrictors and Porsche had a point about BMW racing a car they did not sell. BMW at least made an effort with the E46 M3 GTR to sell a car with the V8. This all changed of course with the introduction of the E92 M3 that had a 4.0 liter V8 under the hood to begin with.

      BMW returned to ALMS GT racing at the end of 2009 testing out the E92 M3 in preparation for the 2010 season. With BMW selling a 4.0 liter V8 powered M3 they were free to race to their hearts content with a V8. BMW won the ALMS GT championship in 2010 and again in 2011 for back to back victories. BMW was dominant with the M3 but rule changes in 2012 slowed the M3's down. BMW complained the regulations were unfair and did what they do best, find loopholes.

      BMW responded with the Z4 GTE for the 2013 season retiring the M3. Now you might be wondering, how can BMW get away with racing a Z4 they do not sell? One with a 4.4 liter V8 engine that they never even sold on the North American continent? Was this not the entire problem over a decade ago? You are not the only one wondering this as BimmerBoost e-mailed ALMS three times in 2013 to get an answer. ALMS never bothered to respond.


      ALMS is gone now for 2014 due to a series merger with the Grand-AM Rolex Sports Car Series and is replaced by the United Sports Car Series governed by the IMSA. The IMSA rulebook is basically the same for the GTLM class as it was for the ALMS GT class. Now with the IMSA governing perhaps they will offer a straight response as to why BMW is allowed to race a hardtop Z4 coupe despite not selling a hardtop Z4 coupe and despite never offering the Z4 with the M3's V8 anywhere on planet earth.

      BimmerBoost sent two e-mails to the IMSA governing body and called the office leaving multiple messages and is still waiting for a response. This despite a nice secretary 'assuring' someone would eventually get back to me. Well, the IMSA would prefer just like ALMS to pretend BMW is not using loopholes but fortunately the rulebook is published online and this is how BMW is able to get away with it.




      As the rule states here, BMW does produce and sell Z4 models in the quantities necessary. However, BMW does not produce a Z4 hardtop coupe. They only produce a hardtop convertible model. Convertibles are not allowed to race in the GTLM class so why is BMW allowed to circumvent this?

      They do not specify if the race car has to have the same open or closed top as the production car which is a rather big loophole. A convertible or coupe is specified as eligible so due to this grey area BMW can sell a convertible coupe but race a hardtop coupe. Every other manufacturer racing in the GTLM class sells a car that shares the same closed roof as what they race. For example, Chevrolet does not sell the C7 Corvette only as a convertible and Ferrari does not sell the 458 only as a spider.

      Here is where things get really interesting regarding the engine. Obviously, there is no E89 Z4M and no production Z4 for sale with a V8. The M3 and M3 GTS both were sold with a V8. BMW sold many more than the 300 units required of the E9X M3 so according to the rules they can use this engine. There is nothing in the rule book that states the race car has to use the motor of the car it is based on. Technically, Ferrari could race the V12 they sell which meets the production number requirement in the 458 chassis if they wanted to. They do not do this though as everyone other than BMW races a motor similar to what they actually sell the car with.

      The C7 has a V8, the Viper has a V10, the GT3 has a flat-6, the 458 has a V8, etc. Everyone follows the spirit of competition by basing their race cars on their street version of the car except BMW:




      The engine regulations lead to further ambiguity. Ignore for a moment that the rules state the engine shall maintain its original location, orientation, and position. Considering the Z4 never originally has a V8 to begin with what exactly is the original location, orientation, and position? Its original location, orientation, and position in the M3? Apparently that means a front engine layout.

      The cylinder block, heads, and camshafts must resemble the production engine counterpart. However, this is where BMW gets away with a 4.4 liter. The M3 raced with 4.0 liters of displacement and the Z4 GTE gets a 4.4 liter displacement V8 like the M3 GTS. There is no regulation on changing the stroke only a cap on displacement of 5.5 liters maximum. Technically, Porsche could race a 5.5 liter flat-6 with these regulations.

      Even though BMW never sold a 4.4 liter V8 engine in North America the way the rules are worded means BMW can get away with racing one. Even though BMW never sold a Z4 hardtop they can race with one. Even though there is no Z4M with a V8 BMW can mix and match parts and use loopholes to get away with it.

      Why? Why does everyone else race something that actually resembles what they sell? Is that not the point of the GTLM class? Ferrari races a 458 coupe with a 4.5 liter V8 and sells a 458 coupe with a 4.5 liter V8. Porsche races a 911 GT3 with a 4.0 liter flat-6 and released a 911 GT3 with a 4.0 liter flat-6. Chevrolet races a C7 coupe with a 5.5 liter V8 (max displacement) and sells a C7 coupe with a V8. Dodge races a Viper coupe with a 8.0 liter V10 (accepting additional air restrictor penalties) and sells a Viper coupe with a V10.

      While what BMW is doing is legal it is not consistent with the spirit of competition. BMW was not winning with the M3 after the regulation changes so they did the same thing they did back in 2001 which was look for loopholes to gain an advantage. Manufacturers having to produce cars that are similar to what they race gives us gems like the GT3 RS 4.0. This is a good thing for enthusiasts especially considering this is the closest we will ever get to sitting behind the wheel of a GTLM race car. If the rules did not allow for BMW to more or less cheat the system, we would have a Z4M in production with a 4.4 liter V8. Was it not more respectable when BMW won with a car that resembled what you could actually buy from BMW?

      The rulebook needs to be updated. Why nobody is questioning BMW's tactics is anyone's guess. Perhaps the IMSA is scared of BMW quitting again since the precedent is if the rules are changed to be more strict regarding homologation BMW simply takes their car and goes home. Why is childish behavior being rewarded? Why is the spirit of GTLM competition not being honored?

      If you let a child throw a tantrum and give in they will only continue to do so in order to get what they want. What BMW is doing disrespects the GTLM class and their competition. BimmerBoost says let BMW throw its tantrum and go home until they grow up and play the game the right way. Sometimes the right thing is not simply following the letter of the law but the spirit of the law.
      This article was originally published in forum thread: This is how BMW uses loopholes to essentially cheat the IMSA GTLM system and race a car (Z4 GTE) they do not sell started by Sticky View original post
      Comments 58 Comments
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        All I see is two manufacturers using whatever to gain an advantage. The racing is still close so I'M not complaining Click here to enlarge
        The question is how BMW goes about it. They are more or less cheating aren't they? When you need lawyers to scour the rules so you can race a car that is a bit of a problem.
      1. SpeedLimit?'s Avatar
        SpeedLimit? -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by BlackJetE90OC Click here to enlarge
        Answer these questions and you will see where some don't find the other analogies in the same vein.

        Does SRT sell a V10 powered Viper?

        Does Chevy sell a V8 powered Corvette?

        Does Porsche sell a flat six powered 991?

        Does BMW sell a V8 powered hardtop Z4?
        Engine configuration doesn't matter. DIFFERENT IS DIFFERENT. If that's the case then manufacturers should just bore and stroke the $h!t out of their motors for more power and say it's still V10, V8, etc. You can't be lenient in one aspect then draconian in the other.
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by whoosh Click here to enlarge
        Great article Sticky.

        We know why BMW does this. They aren't interested in winning LM races. They just want to fly the M colors and say they win at racing, and say "gee, why not buy some M SUVs since our brand is in Motorsport?"

        Race on Sunday, sell on Monday. It's all about ///Marketing.
        It's just such garbage. BMW admits the Z4 is their best bet for racing yet they don't even sell an M version of it. It's a joke. Porsche sells a GT3.
      1. BlackJetE90OC's Avatar
        BlackJetE90OC -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Engine configuration doesn't matter.
        It isn't just engine configuration. The freakin car doesn't even exist.
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Engine configuration doesn't matter. DIFFERENT IS DIFFERENT. If that's the case then manufacturers should just bore and stroke the $h!t out of their motors for more power and say it's still V10, V8, etc. You can't be lenient in one aspect then draconian in the other.
        The issue here is very clear. BMW races a Z4M. They do not sell one. They are hypocrites. They only build one thing? L O L
      1. singletrack's Avatar
        singletrack -
        Thanks for the education Stick...I didn't know all that.

        There is a place for a manufacturer racecar series, and there is a place for a street-racecar series. I personally have a problem identifying with BMW's racecars for this reason. They are nothing like the roadcars. $#@!, the DTM cars are cool - but they might as well be $#@!ing spaceships. Contrast this with the golden years of the e30...just sucks now.

        People want to see their roadcar in costume, on roids, with a $#@!ing cape conquering the world. I 100% agree...no interest in watching a skunkworks Z4 compete in this series. I'll pull for Ferrari or someone else.

        I use to love to watch the Audi S4s in GT and Subaru STi's in WRC for this reason - they were extensions/crazy-versions of the street car.

        What is this thing? Why should I care as a fan?
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        DTM is a whole different thing. It's German NASCAR and nobody pretends that the cars have anything in common with the street cars. Well, nobody other than the marketing people trying to draw idiotic parallels.

        I want to cheer for BMW but it's hard when they don't give me anything to cheer for. When the M3 was racing and my own M3 is a reasonable facsimile that is awesome. Is any Z4 owner cheering because it's similar? Is anyone proud of BMW for using loopholes to race instead of building race bred cars like what the M badge is supposed to denote?

        Gentlemen, you can get M badges on a front wheel drive BMW today and you can't buy a Z4M that they use to race. Do you get how f'd up that is?
      1. singletrack's Avatar
        singletrack -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Sticky Click here to enlarge
        DTM is a whole different thing. It's German NASCAR and nobody pretends that the cars have anything in common with the street cars. Well, nobody other than the marketing people trying to draw idiotic parallels.

        I want to cheer for BMW but it's hard when they don't give me anything to cheer for. When the M3 was racing and my own M3 is a reasonable facsimile that is awesome. Is any Z4 owner cheering because it's similar? Is anyone proud of BMW for using loopholes to race instead of building race bred cars like what the M badge is supposed to denote?

        Gentlemen, you can get M badges on a front wheel drive BMW today and you can't buy a Z4M that they use to race. Do you get how f'd up that is?
        Yup - totally agree. My point with DTM is that it was not always like this. In the original years, they were suped-up roadcars. Now, the rules alllow the spaceships. I have no issue with that, but give me the damn roadcar series as well! I agree - I loosely followed Rahal/Letterman when they had the M3, now I don't care at all with the Z4. Actually, I need to buy the M3 pedal car for my little girl before they replace it with the Z4 no one wants!
      1. SpeedLimit?'s Avatar
        SpeedLimit? -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Sticky Click here to enlarge
        The issue here is very clear. BMW races a Z4M. They do not sell one. They are hypocrites. They only build one thing? L O L
        Porsche doesn't sell a 991 with a metzger
        Dodge doesn't sell a SRT with an 8.0 V10
        Chevy doesn't sell a Vette with a 5.5 V8
        Ferrari doesn't sell a 458 with a 4.0 V8
        etc, etc, etc...
      1. Puerto Rican 335d's Avatar
        Puerto Rican 335d -
        Very true STICKY whats the purpose for this M badging just a NAME!!!
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Porsche doesn't sell a 991 with a metzger
        They did sell a 4.0 liter 911 GT3 with the exact same motor. Obviously they updated the car with the 991 generation and are stuck in limbo until the 991 GT3 RS hits. You are punishing them for making yet another GT3? Have they ever not sold a GT3 they raced? They did with with the 997.1 and 997.2 didn't they? They did it with the 996 MKI and MKII models didn't they?

        How many V8 Z4M's have we seen from BMW? Well? Can you go into a BMW dealership and get one? I can walk into a Porsche dealership and pick up something very similar to what they race.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Dodge doesn't sell a SRT with an 8.0 V10
        You're right. They sell an 8.4 liter SRT10 coupe. BMW doesn't sell a Z4M with an even larger motor.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Chevy doesn't sell a Vette with a 5.5 V8
        See above.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Ferrari doesn't sell a 458 with a 4.0 V8
        It's the F142 V8 based on the same basic design. It's a 4.5 liter, not a 4.0

        Guess what, you can buy all of these cars. You can't buy a Z4 with a V8. Someone has to be blind not to see the distinction.
      1. SpeedLimit?'s Avatar
        SpeedLimit? -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Sticky Click here to enlarge
        They did sell a 4.0 liter 911 GT3 with the exact same motor. Obviously they updated the car with the 991 generation and are stuck in limbo until the 991 GT3 RS hits. You are punishing them for making yet another GT3? Have they ever not sold a GT3 they raced? They did with with the 997.1 and 997.2 didn't they? They did it with the 996 MKI and MKII models didn't they?

        How many V8 Z4M's have we seen from BMW? Well? Can you go into a BMW dealership and get one? I can walk into a Porsche dealership and pick up something very similar to what they race.



        You're right. They sell an 8.4 liter SRT10 coupe. BMW doesn't sell a Z4M with an even larger motor.



        See above.



        It's the F142 V8 based on the same basic design. It's a 4.5 liter, not a 4.0

        Guess what, you can buy all of these cars. You can't buy a Z4 with a V8. Someone has to be blind not to see the distinction.
        But they all DO NOT match production spec...if you want to scrutinize one, you must scrutinize them all. This is one of the few production series where performance balancing is producing multiple winning manufacturers so I see no reason for complaints or grievances.
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        But they all DO NOT match production spec...if you want to scrutinize one, you must scrutinize them all. This is one of the few production series where performance balancing is producing multiple winning manufacturers so I see no reason for complaints or grievances.
        How are you going to have a 100% match? You have street cars matching safety and emissions regulations. Why would anyone expect a perfect match?

        The Porsche 911 GT3 RS 4.0 is the closest you can get legally on the street. It's actually the same damn motor.

        Every manufacturer builds what they race except BMW. Your point is completely invalid and frankly you are reaching so far I wonder how anyone can make it with a straight face. As established in my article, BMW has a history of bending the rules.

        The complaint is BMW M not building cars based on what BMW M races. Do you not see the hypocrisy of the brand itself? It's crystal clear to me.
      1. SpeedLimit?'s Avatar
        SpeedLimit? -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Sticky Click here to enlarge
        How are you going to have a 100% match? You have street cars matching safety and emissions regulations. Why would anyone expect a perfect match?

        The Porsche 911 GT3 RS 4.0 is the closest you can get legally on the street. It's actually the same damn motor.

        Every manufacturer builds what they race except BMW. Your point is completely invalid and frankly you are reaching so far I wonder how anyone can make it with a straight face. As established in my article, BMW has a history of bending the rules.

        The complaint is BMW M not building cars based on what BMW M races. Do you not see the hypocrisy of the brand itself? It's crystal clear to me.
        Correction...every manufacturer races something close to what they build. There is no 991 GT3 RS 4.0, and the current 991 GT3 motor is nothing like the one they are racing with.
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Correction...every manufacturer races something close to what they build.
        How?

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        There is no 991 GT3 RS 4.0
        The 991 generation GT3 just came out. You are punishing Porsche for a new generation? Here's your 911 GT3 4.0:

        Click here to enlarge

        Here's your Z4M V8:

        Click here to enlarge

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        and the current 991 GT3 motor is nothing like the one they are racing with.
        Because the 991 just came out... what is so hard to understand about that? Has Porsche ever sold a GT3 with this motor? Yes, they have actually made GT3's with this motor since 1999. BMW raced a V8 back in 2001 and still hasn't produced a Z4 with one. How are you equating these again? How is there any logic to your point?

        You are telling me this relates to a production BMW Z4 somehow?

        Click here to enlarge

        Guess what, you can find Porsche's motor in several generations of GT3's. Arguing that Porsche doesn't sell it when they have sold it for over a decade as somehow the same as BMW never producing a Z4M with a V8 let alone an E89 Z4M is about as flawed of an argument one can make. How can you be serious?
      1. SpeedLimit?'s Avatar
        SpeedLimit? -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Sticky Click here to enlarge
        How?



        The 991 generation GT3 just came out. You are punishing Porsche for a new generation? Here's your 911 GT3 4.0:

        http://www.bimmerboost.com/images/im...GT3RS406-1.jpg

        Here's your Z4M V8:

        http://www.opednews.com/populum/uplo...130324-179.jpg



        Because the 991 just came out... what is so hard to understand about that? Has Porsche ever sold a GT3 with this motor? Yes, they have actually made GT3's with this motor since 1999. BMW raced a V8 back in 2001 and still hasn't produced a Z4 with one. How are you equating these again? How is there any logic to your point?

        You are telling me this relates to a production BMW Z4 somehow?

        http://www.benzboost.com/images/impo...gtealmse-1.jpg

        Guess what, you can find Porsche's motor in several generations of GT3's. Arguing that Porsche doesn't sell it when they have sold it for over a decade as somehow the same as BMW never producing a Z4M with a V8 let alone an E89 Z4M is about as flawed of an argument one can make. How can you be serious?
        It's an easy point to make. You're just applying a double standard that has no bearing which is why IMSA allows BMW to race. I think they might know a little more on this subject matter than any of us...just saying Click here to enlarge
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        You're just applying a double standard that has no bearing which is why IMSA allows BMW to race
        What is the double standard? There is no Z4M with a V8. There is no E89 Z4M. There is no E89 Z4 coupe. Even if we go so far as to ignore that Porsche races what they go out of their way to build a street car out of (let's just ignore the 997 GT3, 997 GT3 RS, 997 GT3 RS 4.0) Porsche still sells a GT3. BMW does not sell anything resembling what they race. Nothing. Zero.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        I think they might know a little more on this subject matter than any of us...just saying
        The IMSA took over and didn't update the rules. They don't care about the spirit of competition they just want BMW involved for $. Did you not read the article and the rules?

        If you have no problem with what BMW is doing that is your opinion. I think it's BS and I'd prefer for manufacturers to actually build what they race. Just saying.
      1. SpeedLimit?'s Avatar
        SpeedLimit? -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by Sticky Click here to enlarge
        What is the double standard? There is no Z4M with a V8. There is no E89 Z4M. There is no E89 Z4 coupe. Even if we go so far as to ignore that Porsche races what they go out of their way to build a street car out of (let's just ignore the 997 GT3, 997 GT3 RS, 997 GT3 RS 4.0) Porsche still sells a GT3. BMW does not sell anything resembling what they race. Nothing. Zero.



        The IMSA took over and didn't update the rules. They don't care about the spirit of competition they just want BMW involved for $. Did you not read the article and the rules?

        If you have no problem with what BMW is doing that is your opinion. I think it's BS and I'd prefer for manufacturers to actually build what they race. Just saying.
        All you're doing is ignoring one major technical difference for another...so in the end you're not saying much. Using a past chassis which porsche has stated is vastly different from the current 991 platform isn't a strong case to give a pass for using an out of production motor so I can say that IMSA is ignoring that for $$$ as well. And how can you complain about spirit of competition when in the GT2 class you have the most winning manufacturers? I'd like to see a poll of how many people are really complaining about the Z4. Furthermore there was a past model Z4M so I guess that counts since there was a past model gt3 4.0 right?
      1. Sticky's Avatar
        Sticky -
        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        All you're doing is ignoring one major technical difference for another...so in the end you're not saying much.
        I think the only person ignoring anything is the one who can't seem to grasp the difference between racing a car that doesn't exist and claiming to produce cars based on their Motorsport programs and one who actually has used a motorsport derived engine in production cars with continual updates for just over two decades now.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Using a past chassis which porsche has stated is vastly different from the current 991 platform isn't a strong case to give a pass for using an out of production motor so I can say that IMSA is ignoring that for $$$ as well.
        No, Porsche is working within the rules just as BMW is. The difference is Porsche races and builds a GT3. BMW races and does not build a Z4M.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        And how can you complain about spirit of competition when in the GT2 class you have the most winning manufacturers? I'd like to see a poll of how many people are really complaining about the Z4. Furthermore there was a past model Z4M so I guess that counts since there was a past model gt3 4.o right?
        What do you mean by most winning manufacturers exactly?

        Do most people even care about professional racing in the first place? Plus what does the majority thinking on a topic have to do with determining if it is right or wrong? Flawed reasoning again.

        Click here to enlarge Originally Posted by SpeedLimit? Click here to enlarge
        Furthermore there was a past model Z4M so I guess that counts since there was a past model gt3 4.0 right?
        You might actually have a logical argument here if you could go buy a Z4M with a motor resembling what they are racing. You actually can in the case of the GT3 RS 4.0. Maybe you'll understand the point better now.
      1. DavidV's Avatar
        DavidV -
        Mmm, read the whole damn article.

        I disagree.
        BMW makes a 4.4liter engine. As I recall there were X5's driving around with them.
        The rules never states the engine has to be in the car they bring out to race, just that it has to have an engine that is placed in a production car.
        The chassis mounts can be changed if the made more than 2500 of these chassis, which to BMW is no big deal at all. As the amount of 1 car a week, no problem at all.

        It is strange a hardtop chassis was allowed, I give you that. I do not see the regulation that forbids that in your article.

        What it comes down to is the only ones allowed to protest to that are the other teams, no one else.

        Engine choices as I read the rules are based on chassis mounts and raceability.
        That's where every team makes their choices. You state the Max engine size is 5.5L, so every team chooses the engine that best suites their goals weight/performance wise.
        BMW did that. It is stated nowhere the engine has to be produces or available for USA cars. It's just not in the rules...Click here to enlargeClick here to enlarge